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Gravity Research

Time02112

Timekeeper
http://www.NUjournal.net

NU Journal of Discovery
ISSN 1444 1454
Publisher: ASSA (Australian Student Space Association)
NU Journal of Discovery has been created to facilitate highly efficient exchange of information about the latest discoveries and stimulate the global intellectual activity on Earth.

Editorial Board: Donald Payne, Stephen Kenny, Jeremy Margrie, Alaster Meehan, Edward Payne, Tom Chalko

Volume 1, July 2000 - Contents

Tom J. Chalko
The Theory of Gravity and the Universe 3

Abstract. This article briefly describes the theory that unifies gravity, mechanics, thermodynamics and electromagnetism. It proves that the gravity field CAN be generated and clearly demonstrates how it IS generated in Nature around us. Unified equations of electromagnetomechanics presented in this article clearly indicate that electricity, magnetism, gravity and mechanics are INSEPARABLE and any attempt to separate them inevitably leads to fundamental errors. Unified equations of electromagnetodynamics contain a new definition of mass from which it becomes obvious that the "black hole" and "dark matter" theories are pure nonsense and that there is no point whatsoever in searching for the "origin of mass". Applications of the theory reveal the existence of spectacular "fluctuating gravitational gaps" above Earth’s Poles at high altitudes, explain apparent displacement of the "center of gravity" of the Earth towards the North Pole and clarify the fundamental reason for notorious positional anomalies of all satellites. The theory reveals the existence of a fascinating relationship between the increase in the atmospheric pollution and the seismic activity of a magnitude capable of demolishing entire continents. The theory also provides a basis for new ways of space travel, based on gravity generation and inertia control. Newton’s laws and Maxwell’s equations are HISTORY in the presence of the elegantly unified equations of electromagnetodynamics. Implications for every branch of science on Earth are severe. View the full article in PDF format. Download the zipped article NU Forum - exchange ideas

Donald Payne, Tom J. Chalko
Concepts for Levitating and Flying Craft 25

Abstract. This article presents several concepts for designing levitating and flying craft that utilize principles of artificial generation and modification of mass density field and associated gravitational forces, according to Naturally Unified (NU) equations of electromagnetodynamics. Several categories of levitating vehicles are discussed: low altitude levitation vehicles, high altitude flying craft and spacecraft for long range space travel. Gravitational levitation and gravitational propulsion techniques are discussed.

Donald Payne
On the Estimation of Universal Constants 29

Abstract. This article focuses on analyzing units for the Universal Constants defined by Naturally Unified (NU) equations of electromagnetodynamics. Universal Constants that are expressed in identical units are identified. Emphasis is placed on the physical meaning of units and constants that correspond to human perception of Reality.


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Time: Good info.

It seems that the force of gravity is variable. As the universe expands, galaxies, stars, and all bodies move away from each other. That movement would weaken the force of gravity, it seems, because gravity is being overcome in the process.

If the universe begins to contract, I suspect that the force of gravity would increase.

Is a variable force of gravity causing the universe to expand and contract, or is the expansion and contraction of the universe causing variations in the force of gravity?
 
The thanks should be given to "Pamela"...she is the one that was thoughtful enough for providing me with the inf, I just felt that this should be available to all of us, so I took the liberty of posting it here, as I do with everything I find out pertaining.

Thank You Pamela!

Now, to answer your question;...
"Is a variable force of gravity causing the universe to expand and contract, or is the expansion and contraction of the universe causing variations in the force of gravity?

It is "Both" think of this like a vaccum supplying an infinite amount of energy that fluxuates back & forth very similar to AC current.

<This message has been edited by Time02112 (edited 27 August 2000).>
 
http://www.farshore.force9.co.uk/strepuls.htm

Strepulsion And Retraction Forces:
The Discovery Of Two Universal Forces To Navigate The Solar System
By Navin and Pankaj, Astrophysicists
International Astrophysical Research Centre (IARC) Hubli, India
-----------------------------------------
Gravity is a force of attraction between all matter, or so we have been taught. It was Isaac Newton, an English mathematician and physicist who used Kepler's laws and his own observations in the 17th century to derive the universal law of gravitation. Now two Indian astrophysicists, after 23 years of research, have produced a paper claiming the discovery of two new Universal forces hitherto unknown to the World of Science. The forces of Strepulsion and Retraction turns our entire view of the universe and all that occupies it completely on its head. Utilizing these forces along with gravitation it would become much more feasible to navigate our Solar System and beyond. Far Shores is greatful to Navin K. Shaw for sending us a copy of his joint work. The implications for mankind, if these results can be independently tested and proven by the scientific community, is almost beyond comprehension.

Navin and Pankaj, Astrophysicists from IARC, Hubli, have claimed in their above Research-Paper that after 23 years of efforts, they have discovered two new Universal forces hitherto unknown to the Science World. They have titled these forces by STREPULSION and RETRACTION FORCES.
STREPULSION FORCE (SRF) is Stellar Repulsion Force exerted by the Sun and Stars. Stellar bodies are under constant Thermonuclear Reaction (TNR). Stellar mass under TNR is converted into LIGHT & HEAT (Radiating energy) in ratio of 50 percent along with plasma wind and rest 50 percent in the form of high intensity Stellar Repulsion Force (SRF). As SRF is nuclear oriented force (SRF = MC2) its intensity is million times greater than Gravitational intensity (G = M) in the Sun and Stars. Therefore, ACTIVE FORCE exerted by the Sun and Stars is FORCE OF REPULSION – not Gravitation. As most of the mass of the Universe is condensed into Stars, the dominating Universal force is REPULSION. Of course, NON-STELLAR BODIES, which are free from TNR, exert force of Gravitation. All non-luminous bodies as Planets, Satellites, Asteroids, Ringlets, Comets of the Solar System, Pulsars and so called Neutron-Stars and Black Holes are NON-STELLAR bodies and are free from TNR, therefore exert FORCE OF GRAVITATION and are NON-LUMINOUS.

THE SUN EXERTS SOLAR REPULSION FORCE (SRF): PROOF:

(1) ANTI-SOLAR EJECTION OF SOLAR WIND

(2) ANTI-SOLAR DEFLECTION OF COMET-TAIL

(3) ANTI-SOLAR DEFLECTION OF MAGNETOSPHERE OF PLANETS

(4) HIGHER OCEAN TIDES ON FULLMOON MIDNIGHT THAN ON NEWMOON MIDDAY

(5) ANTI-SOLAR RADIATION CURVE OF STAR RAY IN VICINITY OF THE SUN

(6) FREQUENCY RETARDATION OF STAR RAY IN VICINITY OF THE SUN
and all the rest phenomena proves the Sun exert REPULSION FORCE

Reduction of Gravitational Intensity in Square ratio (G = mm/d2) to distance is owing to Solar Repulsion force. Otherwise, this would be G = mm/d. The mass of the Sun is 99.85 percent of the Solar System. If the Sun really exerted force of Gravitation, then, all Planets with their Satellites and rest bodies of the System should have collapsed into the Sun with the beginning of the Solar-System billions of years ago. Centrifugal is fictitious force having no existence. Therefore, the existence of the Solar System itself proves the Sun exert REPULSION. This is SOLAR REPULSION FORCE.

THE SOLAR SYSTEM:

In the Solar System, the SUN exerts force of REPULSION while PLANETS exert force of GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION. The Sun REPELS all Planets while all Planets ATTRACT the Sun. So, neither Planets flung away by REPULSION nor fall into the Sun by GRAVITATION. At ORBITAL DISTANCES, SOLAR REPULSION FORCE (SRF) and PLANETARY GRAVITATIONAL FORCE (PGF) counter balances each other. Therefore, Planets remain at mean constant distance from the Sun in their Orbits. The mutual gravitation between Planets and Satellites is counterbalanced by SRF at ORBITAL DISTANCES. Therefore, Satellites remain at mean constant distance from Planets in their Orbits. This is applicable to all bodies in the Solar System. This is the mystery of MEAN CONSTANT DISTANCE between bodies in the System.

RETRACTION FORCE:

Interaction of SRF and PGF resulted into the birth of a new force. The Authors have titled this force as RETRACTION FORCE (Repulsion x Attraction) - RTF: RTF keeps all bodies of the Solar System in REVOLUTION and in ROTATION. RTF acts on planetary bodies in ratio, which is inversely proportional to the square root of distance () from the Sun. Therefore, Planets REVOLVE around the Sun with this ORBITAL VELOCITY (). All the observed REVOLUTION and ROTATION of Satellites, Asteroids and Ringlets is the result of RETRACTION FORCE. In the Solar System, 50% of the Gravitational intensity is converted into RETRACTION FORCE, which keeps the bodies in Spherical motion. Owing to this conversion, the gravitational loss is exhibited in inverse square law of G-Force (G = mm/d2). Otherwise, G = mm/d would be followed.

RTF is resulted inside atom by interaction of Attraction x Repulsion which keeps particles in spherical motion. RTF is resulted in Galaxies by interaction of Repulsion x Gravitation which keep Stars in Revolution and Rotation. For Spherical motion need RTF. It is not possible by Gravitational force to keep bodies in spherical motion as believed in Newtonian Physics.

There are THREE kinds of Elementary motions which need THREE kinds of Elementary Forces. OFF-CENTER MOTION (OCM) needs REPULSION, PRO-CENTER MOTION (PCM) needs ATTRACTION and for SPHERICAL MOTION needs RETRACTION FORCE.

STARS EXERT REPULSION FORCE (SRF): PROOF:

(1) EXPANDING UNIVERSE: OWING TO MUTUAL REPULSION BETWEEN STARS, GALAXIES ARE EXPANDING. OWING TO MUTUAL REPULSION BETWEEN GALAXIES, UNIVERSE IS ON EXPANSION. As ratio of SRF is increasing with time, so presently, EXPANSION OF UNIVERSE IS IN HIGHER RATIO than 5 billion years ago.

(2) DISPERSION OF MASS IN CRABE NEBULA AND IN SPIRAL GALAXIES.

(3) EJECTION OF THE STREAM OF PLASMA PARTICLES FROM GALAXY M-87.

(4) EJECTION OF PLASMA WIND IN BINARY SYSTEMS IN BLACK HOLE CONCEPT.

(5) RADIATION OF COSMIC PARTICLES, LIGHT, HEAT, X-RAYS and GAMMA RAYS.

(6) EXPLOSION OF NOVA INTO SUPERNOVA AND HYPERNOVA.

(7) EJECTION OF SUPER-LUMINO PLASMA CLOUDS FROM QUASARS and all the rest phenomena proves that the STARS EXERT REPULSION FORCE. EXPANSION, DISPERSION, EJECTION, RADIATION, EXPLOSION and NUCLEAR REACTION are observed phenomena in the Stellar Universe in which the Stellar mass follows OFF-CENTER MOTION (OCM), which is the result of Stellar REPULSION FORCE. These phenomena are not possible under Gravitational influence. The summary is, the SUN and STARS exert force of REPULSION – not Gravitation.

RACS NUCLEAR REACTION (RNR):

Thermonuclear Reaction (TNR) in the Sun and Stars is neither fission nor fusion. TNR is not owing to any gravitational pressure at the center of Stars as explained by George Gamove. TNR is Retrograde Atomic Conversion of Stellar (RACS) mass in Stars. This is RACS NUCLEAR REACTION (RNR), which the Authors have detected. RNR starts from the surface of the Sun and Stars but not from the center. Therefore, Sunspots exhibit inner cooler regions of the Sun. Solar corona is more hot than Solar surface because the generated heat by RNR at the surface is transmitted to the corona. Heat at the surface of the Sun is about 5000 degree while corona follows more than a million degree temperature. RNR is activated by imbalanced intra-atomic Repulsive forces of Stellar mass. We are knowing that intensity of intra-atomic repulsion force is 1034 times greater than the force of attraction inside the atom. This Repulsion force causes RNR. If RNR would have started from the center of the Sun or Star then these bodies would be exploded and dispersed in Space with beginning of the nuclear reactions. There would be no existence of the Stellar Universe. Transmission of heat by electrostatic forces and TNR by gravitational pressure are fictitious factors under Newtonian Physics having no such existence. Again, Stars are constituted by dense radioactive elements.

If the Sun and Stars were constituted by light gaseous elements, that is, by hydrogen and helium as major elements, then Thermonuclear Reactions would be impossible. For nuclear reactions need heavy dense radioactive elements. In RNR, heavy radioactive elements (owing to intra-atomic repulsive forces) gradually converted into lighter and lighter elements and in the last stage, converted into gaseous elements as hydrogen and helium and escape in space. Therefore, hydrogen and helium are observed as major constituents in the atmosphere of the Sun and Stars. But this does not mean that Stars are gaseous bodies. As per our Astronuclear calculations, DENSITY of the Sun is 14.66 (Earth = 1) but not 0.23 as believed in present Physics. Spared Stellar mass under RNR is converted into radiating energy (50%) and in Repulsion force (50%). Light and heat is the radiating energy. More details about RNR will be explained in separate article.

THE MYSTERY OF EXPANDING UNIVERSE:

Why the Universe is on expansion? The Universe should be on CONTRACTION if Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation would be the reality. So, there is no REAL and Scientific explanation for present state of EXPANSION. The vague explanations are there based on “Big-Bang Explosion”, “Inertial Force” and “Space-Time-Curvature” being considered for expansion of the Universe. But all these factors are fictitious and non-existing. Therefore, there is no scientific explanation for this violent phenomenon of the Universe. The real explanation is there in STREPULSION-PHYSICS (SRP), the new branch of Science which is established by the Authors. According to SRP, STARS EXERT REPULSION FORCE. Owing to mutual Repulsion between Stars, GALAXIES are EXPANDING. As most of the mass of Galaxies is condensed into Stars, Galaxies exert Repulsion Force. Owing to mutual Repulsion force between Galaxies, GALACTIC CLUSTERS are EXPANDING. Galactic clusters exert force of Repulsion. Owing to mutual Repulsion force between Galactic clusters, the UNIVERSE is EXPANDING. This is the mystery of EXPANDING UNIVERSE. This expansion is followed with DISPERSION of Stellar mass and CONVERSION into Radiating energy and Repulsion force. Therefore, there will be no REVERSE COURSE of CONTRACTION. Expansion will continue till entire physical mass of Stellar Universe is converted in the form of energy and force. As ratio of Stellar Repulsion force is goes on increasing with time, ratio of expansion of the Universe is also goes on increasing with time. So, present Universe is on expansion in higher ratio than five billion years ago.

SPACE NAVIGATION:

Authors have established a new Space Technology and titled it SORLOD – SPACE – SYSTEM (SSS). Under SSS it is possible to utilise SOLAR REPULSION and RETRACTION FORCES along with gravitation for Interplanetary Space Navigation. It is possible to achieve 20 percent of velocity of light for Spacecrafts under SSS. To dominate and navigate the Solar System and beyond – there need SORLOD SPACE SYSTEM (SSS).

THE MYSTERY OF BLACK HOLES AND NEUTRON STARS:

There is a belief in present Science World that all Stars of the Universe, in the last stage will be turned into NEUTRON STARS and then into the BLACK HOLES. If this would be the reality, then, after 20 billion years of formation of the Universe that is TODAY, at least half of the region of the sky should be studded/occupied with trillions of Black Holes and Neutron Stars. However, we know that not a single body, not even CYGNUS X-1 can be recognised with absolute surety as the BLACK HOLE. The summary is, there is something fundamentally wrong in understanding the phenomena of these bodies. There is no scientific explanation for these so called mysterious bodies of the Universe in Newtonian Physics. However, in Strepulsion-Physics (SRP), there is very simple explanation and scientific REASONING. As per SRP, STARS EXERT REPULSION FORCE and are LUMINOUS BODIES. While PLANETS EXERT GRAVITATIONAL FORCE and are NON-LUMINOUS BODIES. Now, the so called BLACK HOLES and NEUTRON STARS exert GRAVITATIONAL FORCE and are NON-LUMINOUS bodies. Therefore, Neutron Stars and Black Holes are PLANETARY BODIES located in Binary Systems or at the center of Galaxies. In Binary System, when bright STAR, EJECTS plasma wind/gas (as the Sun ejects solar wind), and when that wind entered into the gravitational field of planetary companion, it is attracted by that body. This is very simple phenomenon of accretion or Give and Take. For this simple action, the planetary companion of the Binary System is titled as BLACK HOLE by confused Astrophysicists. Accordingly, when COSMIC PARTICLES radiated from the Star companion of the Binary System and when striked at velocity of light with the hard metallic surface of the planetary companion, the cosmic particles collapsed and converted into X-RAYS, GAMMA RAYS and in RADIO PULSATIONS. These radiations onward deflected from surface of planetary body and spread in space. For this simple cause, the confused Science World titled the planetary companion as NEUTRON STAR. In reality, there is no existence of any astronomical bodies as NEUTRON STAR or BLACK HOLE. These are simply DENSE and GIANT PLANETARY BODIES in the Universe. There exist these Non-stellar bodies having mass much greater than Stars around which even Stars revolve. So “pulling of gas/wind” is not by gravitation of invisible companion of Binary System but it is by EJECTION of Star by REPULSION FORCE. These, so called Neutron Stars and Black Holes are NON-LUMINOUS, not because of any great gravitational force – but because these are of PLANETARY constitution and therefore without Thermonuclear reaction and so are NON-LUMINOUS. The summary is, there is no existence of any NEUTRON STARS and BLACK HOLES in the Universe. These are simply DENSE and very GIANT PLANETARY BODIES in Binary System and at the center of Galaxies.

Conclusion......
IT IS POSSIBLE TO UTILISE STREPULSION AND RETRACTION FORCES FOR INTERPLANETARY SPACE NAVIGATION UNDER NEW SPACE TECHNOLOGY OF AUTHORS TITLED SORLOD-SPACE-SYSTEM (SSS). SSS CAN BOOST PRESENT SPACE PROGRAMS AHEAD BY A CENTURY!
 
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